1. It’s clear that pitchers get hurt more often than everyday position players. While this has always been the case, it’s even truer in the modern game. Many believe the increased emphasis on velocity is a big reason why. MLB average fastball velocities have gone from 90.9 in 2008 to 93.3 in 2017. High velocity pitchers are more likely to go on the injured list, or so the theory goes. “Velocity is a factor,” says Dr. Glenn Fleisig, research director at the American Sports Medicine Institute. “All things being equal, throwing 95 mph is more stressful than throwing 90.” 2. In 2017, 86.7 percent of regular season MLB games had at least one pitcher who had previously undergone Tommy John elbow surgery. 86.7%! That number is hard to get your arms around. So is this one: There were more Tommy John surgeries in 2014 than in the entire decade of the 90’s. While Tommy John surgeries have dropped somewhat in the big leagues the last couple years, they’ve actually increased in the minor leagues. It is believed that a pitcher throwing harder puts more stress on his shoulder and elbow. This is especially the case with relievers who come in throwing hard with max effort on every pitch. 3. In an era of sports specialization, many young baseball players play the game virtually year-round, risking overuse injuries. Travel teams and showcase tournaments put pressure on young players, especially pitchers, to perform at a high level. Young pitchers’ bodies are not ready for this type of stress. By the time young pitchers reach the Major Leagues, they have a lot more “miles on the odometer” than young pitchers in past decades had. This year-round specialization also negatively impacts position players who overuse certain muscles and ligaments and underutilize and underdevelop others. 4. MLB games take longer to play today. With longer games the injury rate goes up. Longer periods between the quick “non-action-to-action” movements common in baseball mean a greater chance for pulled muscle-type injuries. The average length of a game in 2005 was 169.9 minutes vs. 185.1 in 2017. That means players that play 155 games or more are on the field for 40+ hours longer than players in 2005. 5. Today’s players are bigger and stronger. Advanced strength training and nutrition methodologies produce heavily-muscled bodies that are more susceptible to a variety of muscle, tendon and ligament injuries (hamstrings, quads, obliques, etc.) A growing number of people believe that today’s players are too “muscle bound” (i.e., suffering from neuromuscular imbalance) which impairs mechanics, leading to more muscle, joint, bone, tendon and ligament injuries. Basically, their joints can’t handle the torque of their developed muscles. (This factor was more pronounced in the 1990’s due to steroid use. Muscles got too big, too fast and training was too intense for typical baseball bodies.) 6. Amphetamines are banned today in Major League Baseball. In past decades, amphetamines were used by players to mask fatigue and pain and increase reaction time. Without amphetamines to help get them through games, more players sit out games today than in years past – or so the theory goes. 7. Another theory is that we are in an era of overdiagnosis and overtreatment when it comes to baseball injuries. Advanced medical imaging technology (e.g., highly-sophisticated MRI machines) can be both a positive and a negative. MRI machines are helpful in finding abnormalities that couldn’t be identified before with basic x-ray technology. But they can also result in “false positives” and identify insignificant “abnormalities,” leading to unnecessary time spent on the injured list. 8. MLB franchises are more risk-averse these days due to the huge investments they have in players. They don’t want to risk minor injuries turning into major injuries. As such, they play it safe and put players on the injured list more readily than in decades past. 9. Similarly, players are also more risk-averse in the modern game because they don’t want to risk career-threatening injuries that could limit, or eliminate, their future earning potential in the game. As such, they are less inclined to play hurt than the “old-timers” were. 10. Teams are using the injured list (IL) today to rest players, give slumping players time to work through physical or mental issues, or to expand their rosters.More Research Needed It’s clear that with all the player games lost to injury in Major League Baseball – and all the dollars spent on injured players — more research is needed in order to fully understand what’s going on and why. “Injury research, medical research, I think is relatively at its stages of infancy, especially relative to all the things you normally talk about,” says Chris Marinak, Executive Vice President of Strategy, Technology and Innovation for Major League Baseball. “You may have seen quotes from Billy Beane, and others, that say injury research is the next frontier of analytics and baseball, and I think that’s really true.” Once MLB has a better handle on the causes of baseball injuries, more research will be needed to test injury prevention programs. “More research is needed to develop and validate appropriately targeted injury prevention programs … There is again a limited amount of literature demonstrating proven injury preventing measures in professional baseball,” concludes a research study led by the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Sports Medicine at the Mayo Clinic. A few teams have made a concerted effort to systematically reduce injuries based on research and analytics. One of those is the Washington Nationals. The Nationals were coming off a 2015 campaign in which they had horrible luck with injuries. They led all of baseball with 2,053 player days lost to injury, according to data compiled by Spotrac. As a first step, the Nationals brought in Harvey Sharman after the 2015 season. Sharman is a physiotherapist who formerly worked for the Leeds United Football Club. He had become fairly well-known in sporting circles for having success cutting the injury rate for Leeds. Supposedly, Sharman had used an “analytics-driven approach” to injury prevention. When he was introduced, Washington general manager Mike Rizzo touted Sharman’s analytics approach and said the analytics-driven injury prevention field was “maybe the next Moneyball.” Sharman implemented a comprehensive new medical program in 2016. The program fully integrated nutrition with strength and conditioning, stretching, ongoing biomechanical testing, etc. During spring training 2016, the Nationals’ medical team evaluated each player’s mobility. The idea was to get biomechanical baseline measurements. The theory being that as players fatigue their biomechanics show the strain and they are at greater risk for injury. Thus, the baseline measurements provided a means of comparison for ongoing measurements taken during the season. The Nationals hypothesized that if they could identify when a given player was fatiguing they could take proactive steps to lower his risk of injury. The results of Sharman’s program were promising in 2016. They only had 1,030 player days lost to injury. However, that figure, while a big drop for the Nationals, still wasn’t much better than the middle of the pack in baseball. In 2017, they had 1,132 player days lost to injury. Not bad but certainly not great. In 2018, they had 1,416 player days lost to injury, in the upper third of days lost to injury relative to other MLB teams. It’s clear the Nationals have yet to solve the injury issue, despite their “analytics-approach” to injury prevention. “If we can further shed light on risk factors for baseball players who have a higher chance of injury, this could mean less injuries, less time and dollars lost to injuries, a more competitive product on the field and higher earning potential for players,” said USC Assistant Professor of Clinical Physical Therapy Jonathan Sum. As of today, the most common strategy when it comes to injury prevention in baseball is hope. And hope isn’t a very effective strategy. “What’s happening in baseball, basically, is that we’re hoping we get lucky (with injuries),” Conte says. “And that, to me is a bad way to go.” Injury research should probably be Priority One. Major League Baseball owners spent $745,769,319 on injured list players in 2018 alone. Effectively researching and analyzing injuries in baseball is the next frontier, beyond OBP, OPS, WAR, wRC+ and other performance-based, on-the-field analytics. * * * The best teams don’t always win championships. Champions are the teams that combine good talent with good strategy and good health. MLB organizations, thanks to analytics have arguably never had a better handle on good talent and good strategy. However, when it comes to good health, more specifically, the cause and prevention of injuries, they are still struggling mightily. Just ask the New York Yankees. Brooklyn Dodgers general manager Branch Rickey once said baseball is a game of inches. That probably still holds true. But in 2019, baseball has really become more a game of injuries. — Ken Reed, Sports Policy Director, League of Fans
Sports Forum Podcast
Episode #25 – League of Fans’ Sports Forum podcast: Physical Education Should Be a Critical Component of K-12 School Design – Michael Horn is co-founder of the Clayton Christensen Institute for Disruptive Innovation. He is an expert on K-12 education and believes in the power of physical education to improve academic performance and enhance physical, emotional and behavioral health.
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Episode #24 – League of Fans’ Sports Forum podcast: Mental Health and Athletes: Ending the Stigma – Nathan Braaten and Taylor Ricci are the founders of Dam Worth It, a non-profit created to end the stigma around mental health at colleges and universities through sport, storytelling, and community creation.
Episode #23 – League of Fans’ Sports Forum podcast: Olympian Benita Fitzgerald Mosley Talks Title IX, Youth Sports and the Olympics.
Episode #22 – League of Fans’ Sports Forum podcast: Rethinking Sports Fandom with Author Craig Calcaterra – We discuss Calcaterra’s new book “Rethinking Fandom: How to Beat the Sports-Industrial Complex at Its Own Game” and explore new ways to be a fan.
Episode #21 – League of Fans’ Sports Forum podcast: Chatting About a Broken Game With Baseball Writer Pedro Moura – Moura is a national baseball writer for Fox Sports. We discuss how and why the game of baseball is broken, what factors caused it, and offer a few thoughts on how to “fix” a great game.
Episode #20 – League of Fans’ Sports Forum podcast: Coaching Youth and High School Sports Based On What’s Best for the Athlete’s Holistic Development – We chat with long-time youth, high school and college basketball coach Jim Huber.
Media"How We Can Save Sports" author Ken Reed appears on Fox & Friends to explain how there's "too much adult in youth sports."
Ken Reed appears on Mornings with Gail from KFKA Radio in Colorado to discuss bad parenting in youth athletics.
“Should College Athletes Be Paid?” Ken Reed on The Morning Show from Wisconsin Public Radio
Ken Reed appears on KGNU Community Radio in Colorado (at 02:30) to discuss equality in sports and Title IX.
Ken Reed appears on the Ralph Nader Radio Hour (at 38:35) to discuss his book The Sports Reformers: Working to Make the World of Sports a Better Place, and to talk about some current sports issues.
- League of Fans Sports Policy Director Ken Reed quoted in Washington Post column titled "What happened to P.E.? It’s losing ground in our push for academic improvement," by Jay Mathews
League of Fans is a sports reform project founded by Ralph Nader to fight for the higher principles of justice, fair play, equal opportunity and civil rights in sports; and to encourage safety and civic responsibility in sports industry and culture.
Sports & Torts – Ken Reed, Sports Policy Director, League of Fans – at the American Museum of Tort Law
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